From: Michael Current 
Newsgroups: comp.sys.atari.8bit,comp.answers,news.answers
Subject: Atari 8-Bit Computers: Frequently Asked Questions
Followup-To: comp.sys.atari.8bit
Date: 8 Jul 1997 10:05:30 GMT
Organization: Carleton College
Lines: 2939
Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.Edu
Expires: 20 Sep 1997 10:02:13 GMT
Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked 
         Questions (and their answers) about Atari 8-bit 
X-Last-Updated: 1997/07/07
Originator: faqserv@penguin-lust.MIT.EDU
Xref: comp.sys.atari.8bit:48743 
      comp.answers:26994 news.answers:106847

Archive-name: atari-8-bit/faq
Posting-Frequency: 60 days
Last-modified: June 18, 1997

         Welcome to the comp.sys.atari.8bit newsgroup!

                     Atari 8-Bit Computers

                Frequently Asked Questions List
 ___________                                    _______________
| ///////// |          _____________           |  |||||||||||  |
|___________|         |             |          |  ||_______||  |
|______/////|         |____[---]____|          | / _________ \ |
|__[_____]__|         |__[_____]____|          |___[_____]_____|
    130XE                  800XL                      800
 ___________                                     __---------__
| ///////// |                                   | /  _____  \ |
|___________|          _____________            | / |_____| \ |
|______/////|         |____[---]____|           | ___________ |
|LLLLLLLLLLL|         |LLLLLLLLLLL ||           | ========== =|
|LLLLLLLLLLL|         |LLLLLLLLLLL ||           | ========== =|
|__[_____]__|         |__[_____]____|           |___[_____]___|
     65XE                  600XL                      400
 ___________                                     _____________
| ///////// |    ___________                    |             |
|___________|   |/// /      |                   |             |
|______/////|   |// /       |  /\___________    |=============|
|__[_____]__|   |____O_O_O_O|   |__[_____]__|   |___[_____]___|
    800XE              XE Game System                1200XL

Additions/suggestions/comments/corrections are needed!  Please 
send to:


Copyright (c) 1992-1997 by Michael D. Current, and others where 
noted.  Feel free to reproduce this file, in whole or in part, 
so long as the content of that portion reproduced is not 
modified, and so long as credit is given to this FAQ list or its 
Maintainer, or the author of that section reproduced when given.

This FAQ list is in a constant state of development and comes 
with no guarantees.  If you see any problems, I need to hear 
from you!

Please refer to the latest version of this FAQ list whenever 
possible!  Available via these locations and Usenet FAQ archives 

news:comp.sys.atari.8bit   news:comp.answers   news:news.answers

Or you can always ask me for a copy at


Subject: 0.1) Table of contents

 0.1) Table of contents

     Introduction to the Atari
 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer?
 1.2) What can I do with an 8-bit Atari?
 1.3) What are some of the performance features of the 8-bit 
 1.4) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari?

     Usenet newsgroups
 2.1) What is comp.sys.atari.8bit?
 2.2) What other Usenet newsgroups cover the 8-bit Atari?

     E-Mail lists
 3.1) What is INFO-ATARI8?
 3.2) What is the Independent Atari 8bit Network?
 3.3) What is CLASSICCMP?
 3.4) What is ATARIPL?

     Software Archives
 4.1) What is the University of Michigan Archive?
 4.2) What is the Boston Archive?
 4.3) What is the PVV Archive?
 4.4) What is the ClarkNet Archive?
 4.5) What is the Gatekeeper's Archive?
 4.6) What is the Polish Demo Archive?
 4.7) What is the Slovakian Archive?

     Telnet sites
 5.1) What is the Cleveland Free-Net Atari SIG?
 5.2) What is the National Capital FreeNet Atari Users SIG?
 5.3) What is the Victoria Telecommunity Network Atari Users 

     World Wide Web pages
 7.1) What WWW pages support the 8-bit Atari?

     IRC channels
 8.1) What IRC channels discuss the 8-bit Atari?

     File Formats
 9.1) What's this UUEncoding stuff (.uu, .uue files) all about?
 9.2) What is an .arc file?
 9.3) What are the .DCM, .ATR, and .XFD file formats?
 9.4) What are the .XMO and .BIN file formats?

     File Transfer Solutions
 11.1) What are the best terminal emulators available?
 11.2) Can I read/write 8-bit Atari disks on an IBM-PC?
 11.3) Can I read/write MS-DOS disks on an 8-bit Atari?
 11.4) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable?

 12.1) What 5.25" floppy disk drives are available?
 12.2) How can I use 3.5" floppy disks with my 8-bit Atari?
 12.3) What do I need to connect a hard drive to my 8-bit Atari?
 12.4) What is SIO2PC?
 12.5) What kinds of monitors can I use with my Atari?

     General Interest
 13.1) What's the best DOS for the Atari?
 13.2) What hardware has Atari created in the 8-bit computer 
 13.3) What are the power-supply requirements for my Atari 
 13.4) What are the pinouts for the...?
 13.5) What BBS software can be used on the Atari?
 13.6) What versions of Atari BASIC or the CTIA/GTIA chip do I 
 13.7) Which versions of the Operating System (OS) are there?
 13.8) What games support 4 simultaneous players on the 400/800?
 13.9) Why should I disconnect the 810/1050 power supply before 
       connecting or disconnecting SIO cables?
 13.10) What is Omnimon?
 13.11) What is the difference between NTSC and PAL machines?
 13.12) What programming languages are available for the Atari?

     Other FAQ Lists for the 8-bit Atari
 14.1) What vendors, developers, or publishers support the 8-bit 
 14.2) Where is my nearest 8-bit Atari BBS?
 14.3) Where is my nearest 8-bit Atari user group?
 14.4) I'm new to the Atari.  How do I use this thing?
 14.5) Can I use an emulator to run my old Atari software on my 
       new computer?
 14.6) What hardware upgrades, modifications and add-ons are 
 14.7) What is the HARD-Interlacing-Picture (HIP) format?
 14.8) How do I access Usenet, FTP, Gopher, and WWW by e-mail?

Reader-suggested topics, unwritten as yet: (volunteers?!)
   How fast of a modem can my Atari display keep up with?
	-with Ultraspeed roms?
	-with XEP-80
	-with any particular terminal program

   What is the XEP 80?

   Video Upgrades
	-Adding chroma\lumi to 800XL

   How can I make my commercial boot disk (tape, cart)
    into a load file or disk image?

   What is APE?

   Why does some European software (especially demos) flicker?


Subject: 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer?

400 800 1200XL 600XL 800XL 65XE 130XE 800XE XE Game System

Here is a very condensed history of Atari, centered around their 
8-bit computers.

Atari Inc. is formed by Nolan Bushnell; created the first coin-
operated arcade video game with the introduction of Pong. The 
video game industry was launched and has shaped pop culture ever 

Warner Communications acquires Atari Inc.

Atari launches the Video Computer System (VCS), giving birth to 
home video game systems.

In December, Atari announces the Atari 400 and 800 personal 
computers, using the 6502 microprocessor. The Atari 800 was 
code-named "Colleen"; the 400,"Candy."

The following are most of the team who originally designed the 
   400/800. Credit for providing this information for the FAQ 
   goes to:
   Doug Neubauer (by way of James Finnegan, )
   Jerry Jessop,
   Scott Emmons,

Jay Miner - Creator and System architect, VSLI manager
Steve Mayer - Also one of the creators - Partner in "Cyan 
Lawrence D. Emmons - Also one of the creators - Partner in "Cyan 
Joe Decuir - ANTIC and system and creator
???A French guy - ANTIC logic designer
George McLeod - CTIA and GTIA logic design
Doug Neubauer - POKEY logic design
Mark Shieu - POKEY chip design
Steve Stone - POKEY layout design
Steve Smith - Technician for ANTIC and GTIA
Delwin Pearson - Technician for POKEY

Larry Kaplan
David Crane
Bob Whitehead
Al Miller

The Atari 400 and Atari 800 Home Computers debut at the Winter 
Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in early January.

Jerry Jessop, writes:
  "The first official small shipment of the 400/800 was on 
  August 29th 1979.  These were hand built pilot run units to 
  Sears that needed to be in stock by Sept. 1 so they could be 
  placed in the big fall catalog. The units were placed in the 
  Sears warehouse and then immediatly returned to Atari after
  the "in stock" requirment had been meet.

  The first "real" consumer units were shipped in Nov. of 79 and 
  were 400's to Sears followed very shortly by 800's."

These MOS Technology 6502-based systems run at a clock speed of 
1.79 MHz, offering 128 colors displayable simultaneously, up to 
320x192 graphics resolution and up to 40x24 text resolution in 8 
graphics modes and 6 text modes.  Video may be displayed either 
on a composite video monitor in the case of the 800, or on a 
standard television for both systems.  4 independent sound 
voices are available through the audio output of the television 
or monitor, each with a 3 1/2 octave range, plus there is a 
built-in speaker for key-click and other programmable sounds.  
The 800 has a second cartridge port and a full-stroke keyboard, 
while the 400 has a single cartridge port and a membrane 
keyboard.  Each has 4 serial controller ports and an Atari 
Serial Input/Output port.  Originally, both the 400 and 800 were 
sold with 8K RAM, but later most 800's were sold with 48K and 
400's with 16K.  Each includes the 10K Atari Operating System in 

November: 400/800's begin shipping with the new GTIA chip in 
place of CTIA, increasing the palette of simultaneously 
displayable colors to 256 and adding 3 new graphics modes.  CTIA 
is totally phased out by the end of the year.

Jerry Jessop, adds:
  "The very first proto systems did have the GTIA, but it had 
  some problems and was not released in the consumer version 
  until 1981. The GTIA was completed before the CTIA."

The introduction of the 1200XL in late 1982 marks the single 
largest advance in the 8-bit Atari system.  The 1200XL runs most 
software and hardware designed for the 800 and 400, but now runs 
a slightly more advanced 6502C microprocessor, and includes a 
full 64K RAM.  The single cartridge and monitor ports remain, 
along with 2 controller ports.  In addition, the 1200XL includes
4 programmable Function keys and a Help key, built-in diagnostic 
and graphics demonstration programs, and probably the favorite 
keyboard of any 8-bit Atari computer.  Clicks previously 
outputted through the built-in speaker are now heard from the 
television or monitor's speaker.  The revised 16K Operating
System offers many new features, including an alternate 
International Character Set.

In 1983 Atari replaced the 1200XL/800/400 line-up with the new 
800XL and 600XL.  These new machines include most of the 
features of the 1200XL minus the Function keys and the demo 
program.  But now both the 800XL and 600XL have the Atari BASIC 
language built-in.  In addition, these two systems offer the 
Parallel Bus Interface (PBI), providing direct memory access to 
the heart of the computer.  The 800XL contains 64K RAM while the 
600XL has 16K RAM.

Warner Communications sells Consumer Electronics and Home 
Computer divisions of Atari Inc. to Tramiel Technologies.

Atari Corporation is formed by Tramiel Technologies and its 
products marketed under the Atari brand.

   (Atari Games Corporation is also formed from the former 
   coin-op division and markets coin-op games under the Atari 
   Games brand.

   Today Atari Games is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of 
   the Midway Games division of WMS Industries.

   WMS Industries Inc.
   3401 N California Ave
   Chicago IL 60618-5899

   Midway Games Inc. (a division of WMS)

   Atari Games Corporation (a subsidiary of Midway Games) )

The new Atari Corp. delivered on its promise to advance the 
8-bit Atari system by replacing the 800XL/600XL with the new 
130XE and 65XE in 1985. The 65XE is nearly identical to the 
800XL in features, minus the PBI. The 130XE, however, offers 
128K RAM, plus the FREDDY chip, supporting the unique (but 
rarely used) ability for the 6502C and the ANTIC to 
independently access RAM banks.  In addition, the 130XE replaces 
the PBI port with the Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI), 
continuing the powerful feature of direct memory access.

In a change of marketing strategy, Atari introduced the new XE 
Game System in 1987.  Despite its label, the XEGS is a true 
8-bit Atari computer system.  It offers the convenience of a 
detachable keyboard and built-in Missile Command game, while 
offering 64K RAM and full compatibility with the 65XE.

The 800XE, a 130XE with just 64K, was released at some point in 
eastern Europe.  [WHEN???]

Atari officially dropped all remaining support of their 8-bit 
computer line on January 1, 1992.

On July 31, 1996, Atari Corp. became a JTS Corp. subsidiary.  
JTS, with headquarters in San Jose, Calif., was founded in 1994 
to design, manufacture and supply enhanced-capacity hard disk 
drives for the notebook and desktop personal computer market.  
The company currently employs more than 5,800 people worldwide 
including manufacturing facilities in Madras, India.

JTS Corporation
166 Baypointe Pkwy
San Jose CA 95134-1621
Phone: 408-468-1800
Fax: 408-468-1619

Atari Corporation (a JTS subsidiary)


Subject: 1.2) What can I do with an 8-bit Atari?

What can you do with an 8-bit Atari computer system?  Virtually 
anything you can do with any other type of computer!

Programming?  Pascal, C, BASIC, Logo, Pilot, Forth, Lisp, 6502 
assembler... Plus powerful unique languages like Action! and 

Word Processing?  Try AtariWriter, Letter Perfect, Paperclip, 
TextPro, Bank Street Writer, 1st EXLent, TurboWord, Cut & Paste, 
Letter Wizard, Panther, Superscript...

Database?  Try TurboBase, TurboFile, Synfile, Data Perfect, 
MicroFiler, MegaFiler, Homebase, Super Data Base 1-2-3, Small 
Business System...

Speadsheet?  Look at Syncalc, Visicalc, TurboBase, Calc Magic, 
Turbo-Calc, SAM Budget...

Communications?  There's Express!, BobTerm, Kermit-65, Omnicom, 
VT850, Chameleon, Ice-T, FlickerTerm 80, Term80...

Graphics?  Print Shop, Newsroom, Blazing Paddles, Video Title 
Shop, Virtuoso, Movie Maker, News Station, Publishing Pro, 
Awardware, Page Designer, ChromaCAD, Rambrandt...

Music?  Virtuoso, Music Studio, Music Construction Set, 
Songwriter, Electronic Drummer, Music Painter, Music Composer, 
AtariMusic, MIDI-Track, Digital Music System, Chaos Music 

Alternate Operating Systems?  There's the Diamond Graphic 
Operating System; SpartaDOS X, the 64K DOS on a 
"supercartridge"; the S.A.M. (Screen Aided Management) 80 column 
Desktop System; the Ultra Speed Plus OS; the TurBoss! High Speed 

Hardware?  A plethora of upgrades and add-ons are available, 
realizing improvements in speed, memory, sound, graphics, 
storage name it!

Education?  Colorful graphics, exciting sounds and full-screen 
editing give rise to hundreds of quality educational software 

Entertainment?  The 8-bit Atari has long been famous for 
thousands of great games.

If you want to do something with a computer, chances are you can 
do it on an 8-bit Atari computer.  While slower than today's 
PC's, the 8-bit Atari is far less costly than any of these, is 
easier to program at the machine level or alter at the hardware 
level, and has been documented more thoroughly than any of the 
newer computing platforms.  The relative simplicity in design of 
the 8-bit Atari also means that many people find the systems 
more reliable than their modern counterparts.

The software for the 8-bit Atari is sometimes more powerful than 
on any other platform.  For example, some Bulliten Board Systems 
are still run on 8-bit Ataris specifically because the BBS 
software available can be better than that for any other type of 
computer.  There is a reason for the relative quality of 
software on the 8-bit Atari.  People program commercially for 
the latest PC's to make money; people program the 8-bit Atari 
because they want to -- they enjoy producing good software.  It 
takes a team of specialized programmers to develop a major piece 
of software for those other systems; with the 8-bit Atari, a 
single person has the chance to learn the entire system, thereby
developing greater pride in his programming abilities and his 
final product. The character of the programmer can shine 

The 8-bit Atari owner can take pride that his/her computer 
platform was developed years before the IBM PC or Apple 
Macintosh were even on the drawing boards, but remains as useful 
today as it was in 1979.

For these reasons and more, the 8-bit Atari remains a popular 
alternative in today's home computer marketplace.


Subject: 1.3) What are the some of the performance features of 
the 8-bit Atari?

Some of this text by (Bill 

NTSC machines: 1.78979 MHz
PAL machines: 1.773447 MHz

      60 times per second (Hz) on NTSC Ataris
      49.86 Hz on PAL machines

ANTIC     CIO/BASIC     Display     Resolution        Number of
Mode #    Graphics #    Type        (full screen)     Colors
  2          0          Char         40 x 24            1 *
  3          -          Char         40 x 19            1 *
  4         12 ++       Char         40 x 24            5
  5         13 ++       Char         40 x 12            5
  6          1          Char         20 x 24            5
  7          2          Char         20 x 12            5
  8          3          Map          40 x 24            4
  9          4          Map          80 x 48            2
  A          5          Map          80 x 48            4
  B          6          Map         160 x 96            2
  C         14 ++       Map         160 x 192           2
  D          7          Map         160 x 96            4
  E         15 ++       Map         160 x 192           4
  F          8          Map         320 x 192           1 *
  F          9 +        Map          80 x 192           1 **
  F         10 +        Map          80 x 192           9
  F         11 +        Map          80 x 192           16 ***
  * 1 Hue; 2 Luminances
 ** 1 Hue; 16 Luminances
*** 16 Hues; 1 Luminance
  + require the GTIA chip.  1979-1981 400/800's shipped with 
 ++ Not available via the BASIC GRAPHICS command in 400/800's.

Nine color registers are available.  Each color register holds 
any of 16 luminances x 16 hues = 256 colors.  (Four registers 
are for player-missile graphics.

Character sets of 128 8x8 characters, each with a normal and an 
inverse video incarnation, are totally redefinable.

  Four 8-bit wide, 128 or 256 byte high single color players, 
    and four 2-bit wide, 128 or 256 byte high single color 
    missiles are available. A mode to combine the 4 missiles 
    into a 5th 8-bit wide player is also available, as is a mode 
    to XOR colors or blacken out colors when players overlap 
    (good for making three colors out of two players!)  Players
    and missiles have adjustable priority and collision 

  Screen modes can be mixed (by lines) down the screen using the 
    Display List - a program which is executed by the ANTIC 
    graphics chip every screen refresh:

  All other screen attributes (color, player/missile horizontal 
    position, screen width, player/missile/playfield priority, 
    etc.) can be ajusted at any point down the screen via DLI's.

  Fine scrolling (both vertical and horizontal) can be enabled 
    on any line on the screen.

  Four voices of 8-bit pitch-resolution, 4-bit volume-
    resolution, 8-distortion sound can be produced.  2 voices (1 
    and 2, and/or 3 and 4) can be combined to make 16-bit pitch-
    resolution.  Also 4-bit volume-only modes can be enabled for 
    digitally sampled sound replay.

  A fifth "voice" is produced by the internal speaker on Atari 
    400/800's (for keyclick and buzzer) and in the XL's and XE's 
    this was (fortunately!) rerouted through the normal audio 
    output, and the keyclick can be disabled.


Subject: 1.4) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari?

The following text was written by Chris Crawford and appears in 
De Re Atari (Atari#APX-90008), a book published and copyright 
by Atari, Inc., 1981-1982.  It has been very slightly modified 
here for generality.

     "The internal layout of the Atari 8-bit computer is very 
different from other systems.  It of course has a microprocessor 
(a 6502), RAM, ROM, and a (PIA).  However, it also has three 
special-purpose (LSI) chips known as ANTIC, GTIA, and POKEY.  
These chips were designed by Atari engineers primarily to take 
much of the burden of housekeeping off of the 6502, thereby 
freeing the 6502 to concentrate on computations.  While they 
were at it, they designed a great deal of power into these 
chips. Each of these chips is almost as big (in terms of silicon 
area) as a 6502, so the three of them together provide a 
tremendous amount of power.  Mastering the Atari 8-bit computers 
is primarily a matter of mastering these three chips.

     ANTIC ("Alpha-Numeric Television Interface Circuit") is a 
microprocessor dedicated to the television display.  It is a 
true microprocessor; it has an instruction set, a program 
(called the display list), and data.  The display list and the 
display data are written into RAM by the 6502.  ANTIC retrieves
this information from RAM using direct memory access (DMA).  It 
processes the higher level instructions in the display list and 
translates these instructions into a real-time stream of simple 
instructions to GTIA.

      CTIA ("Color Television Interface Adapter") / GTIA 
("George's Television Interface Adapter") is a television 
interface chip.  ANTIC directly controls most of GTIA's 
operations, but the 6502 can be programmed to intercede and
control some or all of GTIA's functions.  GTIA converts the 
digital commands from ANTIC (or the 6502) into the signal that 
goes to the television.  GTIA also adds some factors of its own, 
such as color values, player-missle graphics, and collision 

     POKEY is a digital input/output (I/O) chip.  It handles 
such disparate tasks as the serial I/O bus, audio generation, 
keyboard scan, and random number generation.  It also digitizes 
the resistive paddle inputs and controls maskable interrupt 
(IRQ) requests from peripherals.

     All four of these LSI chips function simultaneously.  
Careful separation of their functions in the design phase has 
minimized conflicts between the chips.  The only hardware level 
conflict between any two chips in the system occurs when ANTIC 
needs to use the address and data buses to fetch its display 
information.  To do this, it halts the 6502 and takes control of 
the buses."

The 130XE and XEGS contain a small additional LSI called FREDDY, 
a RAM address multiplexer.  According to (James Bradford), "FREDDY is a 
type of memory controller.  It takes the address and clock from 
the CPU and multiplexes it with the appropriate timings and 
signals to use DYNAMIC memory.  FREDDY also buffers the system 
clock crystal and divides it down then feeds that to GTIA.  The 
XEGS has a FREDDY but it doesn't have the extended RAM.  Even if 
it did, you would still need the chip that does the REAL bank 
switching.  It is a small 16-pin chip (Atari/Best Electronics 
catalog number CO25953: rev9/page 42).  It gets RAS from FREDDY, 
the bank select bits from PIA, A14, A15 and the 6502 halt signal
to control which bank of 8 chips RAS goes to.  A14 and A15 then 
go to FREDDY for the address range of the extra memory bank (or 
normal address range with no bank switching).  The ANTIC/6502 
select bits in combination with the 6502 halt line, control the 
switching of the PIA bank number bits to A14/A15 and which bank 
of memory RAS goes to.  Why people say FREDDY does the bank
switching is beyond me.  An 800XL can look like a 130XE with 
that 16-pin chip installed (That's right NO FREDDY) and an extra 
8 RAM chips."

Hardware Arrangement (With thanks to (Peter))

|            +------------+             |
|            | CPU(6502C) |         +-------+
|            +------------+      <- |  I/O- |
|                  |     +----------|release|
|                 +-+    |          +-------+
| +---------+<-   |p|    |               |
| |   MMU   |-----| |    | <-+---------+-|----------+----------+
*-| memory- |     |r|    *---|   PIA   | | (trigger)|Controller|====\
| |managment|-----|-+--------| (6520)  | |+---------|   Ports  |====/
| +---------+<-   |o| -> |   +---------+-|-+  <-->  +----------+
|                 | |    |               |||           |    |
|   +-----+       |c|    | <-+---------+ |||           |(lightpen)
|   | RAM |<-A/D  | |    *---|  ANTIC  | |||           |    |
*---|8-128|-------|e|----|---|(2nd CPU)|---------------+    |
|   |Kbyte|->D    | | -> |   +---------+ ||| +---------------
|   +-----+       |s|    |       ||      ||| |
|                 | |    | <-+---------+-|||--------+(screen)
|  +-------+      |s|    *---|  GTIA   |-|+| |      |
|  | Atari |<-A   | |----|---|  /CTIA  | | | | +----------+   +-----------+
|  | BASIC |------|o| -> |   +---------+ | | | | summary  |===| modulator |
*--|8 Kbyte|->D   | |    |               | | | |connection|===| ^^^^^^^^^ |
|  |  ROM  |      |r|    | <-+---------+ | | | +----------+   +-----------+
|  +-------+      | |    +---|  POKEY  |-|-|-+      |(sound)        |
|                 | |--------|         |-|-|--------+               |
|  +-------+      |b| ->     +---------+ | +----------+             |
|  |AtariOS|<-A   | |                 |  |            |             |
*--|10/16Kb|------|u|                 +--|----------+ |         tv/monitor
|  |  ROM  |->D   | +-----------------   |          | |         **********
|  +-------+      |s|              | |   |          | |
|                 | |              | |   |          | |
|                 +-+              +-+   |          | |
|                  |                |    |          | |
+--------------*---|------------*---|    |          | |
               |   |            |   |    |          | |
             +-----------+    +-----------+    +------------+
             |ParallelBus|    | Cartridge |    |   Serial   |
             |Interface/ |    |   Slot    |    |Input/Output|
             | Enhanced  |    |    ROM    |    |    (SIO)   |
             | Cartridge |    +-----------+    +------------+
             | Interface |          |                |
             +-----------+          |                |
                   |                |                |
        - memory expansion    -cartridge with   - disk drive
        - Z80 card             programs         - printer
        - 80 char card         (games , dos )   - modem

 * RAM: 400/800:8/16/48K,1200XL/800XL/65XE/800XE/XEGS:64K,
 * ROM: 400/800:10K OS, 1200XL:16K OS, all others:16K OS + 8K 
        Atari BASIC
 * CPU: 400/800:6502, all others:6502C
 * 800 includes two Cartridge Slots, all others include one
 * early release 400/800 have CTIA instead of GTIA
 * 400/800 have 4 Controller Ports, all others have 2
 * PBI is on 600XL/800XL only
 * ECI is on 130XE/800XE only


Subject: 2.1) What is comp.sys.atari.8bit?

news:comp.sys.atari.8bit is the unmoderated Usenet newsgroup for 
discussion about the Atari 8-bit family of computers, including 
the 400, 800, 1200XL, 600XL, 800XL, 65XE, 130XE, 800XE and the 
XE Game System!

comp.sys.atari.8bit was born around 1986 when the earlier 
comp.sys.atari newsgroup was split into comp.sys.atari.8bit and

Large binary posts do not belong in unmoderated discussion 
groups like comp.sys.atari.8bit.  If you wish to share 
PD/freeware/shareware, use alt.binaries.atari and 
alt.binaries.atari.d or upload the software to the University 
of Michigan Atari Archive.

To the best of my knowledge, there is no charter for 
comp.sys.atari.8bit, presumably because the custom of drafting 
charters for new newsgroups did not exist at that time.


Subject: 2.2) What other Usenet newsgroups cover the 8-bit 

Opinionated discussions about Atari computers.  Unmoderated.

Announcements related to Atari computers.  Dead newsgroup?
Moderated by Yat Siu,

Programming Atari computers.  Unmoderated.
Orphan home video game systems.  Unmoderated.

Emulating one kind of computer on another.  Unmoderated.

Announcements related to computer emulators.
Moderated by Qualcomm,

uuencoded software for Atari computers.  Unmoderated.

Descriptions/discussions on software posted on 
alt.binaries.atari. Unmoderated.

uuencoded software just for the 8-bit Atari.  Not widely 


Subject: 3.1) What is INFO-ATARI8?

INFO-ATARI8 is an e-mail list for discussion about the Atari 
8-bit family of computers.

To subscribe to INFO-ATARI8, send a message to:
that says:
     subscribe info-atari8

INFO-ATARI8 is moderated by 
snyder10@MAILHOST.TCS.TULANE.EDU (Mike Todd)

INFO-ATARI8 was created on December 9, 1986.


Subject: 3.2) What is the Independent Atari 8bit Network?

Date: Fri, 29 Nov 1996 10:37:26 GMT
From: (Tom Hunt)

        Closer To Home Enterprises is happy to announce the 
grand opening of the IA8N's QWKNET.  IA8N = Independent Atari 
8bit Network. This network is ran by a group of volunteers that 
are dedicated, hard core 8bit owners.

        I am seeking more individuals to join the network.
Individuals who join this network will receive weekly, or 
biweekly QWK packets through internet email.  These packets 
contain messages from member 8bit bulletin boards and from 
individual members of the network.  These packets are ARCed and 
UU enocoded.  Both ARC and UU encoders are readily available for 
almost every type of computer system, including the Atari 8bit.

Highlights from recent message threads include:

        A member's recent pilgrimage to Poland to meet with
        various developers.  He reports about a new IDE 
        interface and Sparta Dos X clone for the 8bit.

        Discussions about the new HIP graphic format.  
        Announcment of the release of the new HIP slideshow 
        program, and where to download it.

        Discussion about David Hunt's (no relation) release of
        Carina 2.7 into shareware, and where to download it.

        Discussions about how to use the 8bit to access the 
        internet, including hot 8bit places to visit.  There are 
        tips about which lynx servers are the best to use, how 
        to do dns lookups, and free telnet bbses.

        Discussions about Larry Black's soon to be released 
        ZSEND program.

Message bases that are currently available are:

        User's Groups
        Whine Base

        When an individual sends back a REPly packet to the 
network, ARC must be used for compressing the packet.  But UU, 
HEX, and MIME encoding of REPlies is allowed.

        The message bases have thousands of messages, many of 
which contain information and references to programs that 
cannot be found anywhere, even on the internet.  So join the QWK 
Net today.  This is a FREE service to the 8bit community.  Ask 
about a sample QWK packet, so that you can see for yourself.

        Send inquiries to:

        "QWK Net, an Atari 8bit network, 100% managed, 
        maintained, and published via internet email on an 
        Atari 8bit computer."


Subject: 3.3) What is CLASSICCMP?

From: (Bill Whitson)
Date: Wednesday, March 12, 1997  7:08 PM

Hi all.

I have just started a new discussion list for people who
collect/maintain old computers.  If this kind of thing
interests you read on...

CLASSICCMP - The "Classic Computers" Discussion List

NAQ (Never Asked Questions) 0.1

What is it?

This list is for the discussion of Classic Computers -
primarily for those people who collect and restore
old machines.  It is brand new - no subscribers yet
so sign up.  The collection and restoration of computers
is becoming a big enough hobby that I felt a need for
a place to talk about it.

What is a classic computer?

Well that's hard to say but since I created the list I'll
do it anyway.  A classic computer is a machine that has not
been produced for 10 years or more.  It's an arbitrary
definition but at least uncomplicated.

What are the guidelines?

The list is designed for discussion of collecting, restoring,
and maintaining old computers.  I'm not going to be heavy
handed with restricting discussion.  I'd just like it to be
clear that the list is not the proper place for discussion
of technical problems with the standard PCs and Macs (other
than the really old stuff).  Anyone can lurk - if you're
going to post, just use your own good judgement.

This IS NOT and will NEVER BE a list for discussion of "which
computer is best?" and anyone who posts the ubiquitous "why
don't you just go buy a PC you moron" will be immediately

Beyond this - have fun!  That what keeps us going with these
old machines.

How do I subscribe?

Subscribing to this list is slightly more challenging than
most.  Read the instructions below.

1. Send a message to with the line

        subscribe CLASSICCMP your-address

in the body of the message.

2. Send a message to introducing
yourself and explaining why you wish to be added to the list.

That's it.  I require the letter of introduction for several
reasons.  1 - Only people who really want to be on the list
will bother.  2 - If you can't follow directions I won't hear
from you.  3 - It helps me get an idea of who's on the list
and what they hope to get out of it.  4 - I like to respond
personally to new members rather than run a robot list.


Subject: 3.4) What is ATARIPL?

From: Wojciech Hartman 
Date: Saturday, March 15, 1997  3:51 AM

I am proud to announce that there is a mailing list "ataripl" 
for all polish-speaking Atari users and enthusiasts.

To subscribe the lists you have to send an email to containing a line "subscribe 


Subject: 4.1) What is the University of Michigan Archive?

The University of Michigan (UMich) Software Archives hold a huge 
number of files for many computing platforms, including the 
Atari 8-bit computers.  For more information:

Bill Kendrick, (8-bit Atari files)
Mickey Boyd, (the entire Atari 
Michael Dautermann, (the entire UMich Software 

There are numerous methods available for downloading files from 
the UMich Archive.  The Archivists request you use these 
mechanisms in this order of preference:

1) The number one way to get into the UMich archives is via AFS. 
If you have AFS, all our files are kept in the directory
"/afs/". If you have AFS, PLEASE USE 
IT! Specifically, use:


2) Gophering to and looking under the 
"Software Archives" choice.  Specifically, use:


There are also mirror Gopher servers:

3) The WWW interface is fine, at this point.

Specifically, use:

A mirror web site:

4) FTPing to and looking in the "8bit" 
subdirectory. Specifically, use:

The FTP site is chronically overloaded, 
but there are several mirror sites which are all updated from 
the home site regularly:
      archive/atari/8bit/  ( <-- RECOMMENDED )

Brief FTP tips:
 - user name is "anonymous"; password is your e-mail address
 - Remember to set file type to BINARY when downloading non-text 
   (.arc, .com, .dcm, etc.) by FTP.

5) E-Mail <-> FTP gateways.  See the section of this FAQ list 
entitled "How can I retrieve files from FTP sites by e-mail?"

General uploading tips:
 - No uploads may be made to the Archive's mirror sites.
 - Please also upload a short text file describing what your 
   upload is.  You might also suggest what permanent 8bit 
   subdirectory you'd like your file to end up in.
 - Note that the 8bit/New directory is "write-only."

1) upload via AFS:
Just copy files into 

2) upload via FTP:
FTP to, cd into "8bit/New", and upload 
your files.

Brief FTP tips:
 - user name is "anonymous"; password is your e-mail address
 - Remember to set file type to BINARY when downloading non-text 
   (.arc, .com, .dcm, etc.) by FTP.

3) upload via E-Mail:
Simply uuencode the file and mail it to (Bill Kendrick).


Subject: 4.2) What is the Boston Archive?

     Here's an 8-bit Atari FTP site located at Boston 
University.  It is maintained by Adam Bryant, .  This site seems to have seen no uploads for 
years, but there are some files here that aren't on any of the 
other sites.  [IS THIS SITE LOST? - 10/13/95] (


Subject: 4.3) What is the PVV Archive?

This is a mid-sized Atari FTP site maintained by (Eyvind Bernhardsen).  PVV stands for 
ProgramVareVerstedet, or The Software Workshop, a student 
society at the University of Trondheim, Norway. (

Uploads go to /incoming/atari/8bit; Eyvind will move them to the 
appropriate directory.  Please include a readme file with each 
upload, so people know what they're downloading.


Subject: 4.4) What is the ClarkNet Archive?

This smallish 8-bit Atari FTP site is maintained by Kevin 
Atkinson, . (

Write to Kevin for uploading instructions.

A mirror of the ClarkNet Archive, kept by Jason Duerstock: (


Subject: 4.5) What is the Gatekeeper's Archive?

This small FTP site offers most of the resources provided on the 
Atari 8-Bit Home Page.  Kept by (Ivo 
van Poorten, The Gatekeeper). (


Subject: 4.6) What is the Polish Demo Archive?

It's a place when you can get all Polish (not only) demos (not 
                only) on a Atari 8-bit.
If You have any comments, write to:


Subject: 4.7) What is the Slovakian Archive?

This FTP site contains some demos, games, utils, zines from all 
the world. Here you can also find some Slovak or Czech stuff.

Contact: (Marco, of GMG)


Subject: 5.1) What is the Cleveland Free-Net Atari SIG?

Internet access to the Cleveland Free-Net (Cleveland, Ohio, 

telnet://  or
telnet://  or

Type "go atari" at any menu.

Contact: (Atari SIG)


Subject: 5.2) What is the National Capital FreeNet Atari Users 

Internet access to the National Capital FreeNet (Ottawa, 
Ontario, Canada):

telnet://  (Type "go atari" at any menu) 
gopher://  or

Contact: (Jack Kitowicz) or (Blair Dea)


Subject: 5.3) What is the Victoria Telecommunity Network Atari 
Users SIG?

Internet access to the Victoria Telecommunity Network (Victoria, 
British Columbia, Canada):

telnet:// (Type "go atari" at any menu)

Contact: (Gordon Hooper) or (Ted Skrecky)


Subject: 7.1) What WWW pages support the 8-bit Atari?

This should be a complete list of WWW pages supporting the 8-bit 

See my companion vendor/developer list


Atari Bit Byter User Club e.V. (ABBUC e.V.)
Wolfgang Burger,

Atari Boise User Group (ABUG)
Ron Whittam,

Atari Computer Enthusiasts of Columbus (ACEC)
Michael Steve,

The Atari Exchange of Louisville (AEL)

Central Atari Information Network (CAIN)
Cleveland Free-Net Atari SIG,

Edmonton Atari Computer Hobbyists (EACH)
Leslie Hartmier,

Queensland Atari Computer Enthusiasts (QACE)

St. Paul Atari Computer Enthusiasts (SPACE)
Michael Current,

Toronto Atari Federation (TAF)
Stephen Christian,


Beco Tel
Bernard Kok,

Atari Inside
Marius Diepenhorst,

The Last Hope
Ryan Goolevitch,


The Atari 8-Bit Home Page
Ivo van Poorten,

Atari 8-bit Resort
Marek Tomczyk,

Big Atari 8bit Home Page
Tomasz Tatar,

Some Atari 8-bit Stuff
Rob Funk,

Atari XL/XE-System
ACF Design Team,

ATARI XL/XE - Homepage
Stefan Lausberg,

Tolkien computer games for the Atari 400
Fredrik Ekman,

The good old Atari Computers (1978-1985)
Sacha Hofer,

Beyond ....The Black Stump Atari Page

Alternate Reality Homepage
Robert Hagenstrom,

Reminiscing: 8-Bit Atari Games
John V. Goodman,

Classic Home Video Games Museum
Dennis Brown,

La cueva de los 8 bits
Mariano Domnguez Molina,

Alternate Reality The Classic Role Playing Game
Matt Roller,

Atari 8-bit Emulator Page
Tony Smolar,

Atari 8-bit Utilities (emulators/SIO2PC/APE)
Preston Crow,

BRiTiSH Underground Atari 8-bit
Craig Lisowski,

Homepage Nyman: Atari 8 bit
Peter Nyman, N94PetNy@Midgard.Liu.Se

Atari 8-bit Emulator utilities
Ivan Mackintosh,

Draco's Atari area
Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz,

8-Bit Atari Emulation and Games
David Grieve,

Cartridge List for the Classic Atari 800/XL/XE Computers
Andrew Krieg,

The M*U*L*E Web
David L. Tucker,

The Digital ANTIC Project
Kevin Savetz,

TIGHT group - Atari 8-bit stuff
Michal Franczak,

The Atari 400/800 and OSS
Paul Laughton,

InfoMan's Atari Page
Trevor Holyoak,

BKproductions 8bit Power!
Will Fisher,

Atari Gaming Headquarters
Keita Iida, John Hardie & Les Caron,

Phoenix Atari Connection
John Collins,

Morbid Guy's Atari 8-bit Manual Archive
Morbid Guy,

ATARI XL/XE Computer - Welcome / Willkommen / Bienvenue
Ulf Petersen,

Classic Video Game High Score List
Russ Melanson,

Nordic Atari Show (NAS) and Convention
Rolf Johansson,

Atari 8-Bit
Marcus Phillips,

Alternate Reality on the Web
Sean Noble,

Captain Balde's Atari Bookmarks
Rich Tietjens,

Computer Trading Zone
Sean Noble,

FM Atari 8bit Info
Fred Meijer,

The Classics Exchange
David Wyn Davies,

The Fuji Federation
David Schmudde,

Planet Irata...World of Atari
Tony Cervo,

Atari XL/XE Games And Demos
Sven Gleich,

HeAvEn's Demo-Homepage

The Video Game High Score Page
Sam Hartmann,

Atari 8-bit Projects & Stuff
Sidney Cadot,

The Atari Prototypes & Vaporwares Site
Curt Vendel,

Atari Preservation Society (APS) (Dave Bell)

Atari 8-bit & Linux (Pavel Machek)

Page of all Atarians and M.E.C. Group (Masters of Electric City)

Atari Technical Information (Trevin Beattie)


Subject: 8.1) What IRC channels discuss the 8-bit Atari?

==> #atari8 - Just for 8-bit Atari users!

==> #rgvc - Classic Games and Systems Collectors.  
            "Rec.Games.Video.Classic" (Chad Wagner) writes:

If you have access to a Unix host then you should be able to get 
to irc by typing irc at your shell prompt and jumping on an 
EFnet server (,, and joining #atari8.

If you are using a host that has a menu system then locate IRC 
and go there, and join #atari8 (and hope your on EFnet, :).

If you are using SLIP/PPP then download a client (for Windows 
users, download mIRC for Winsock archives, and I would guess 
that most SLIP/PPP users -- if they have gotten that far -- are 
familiar with IRC, :) and select one of the servers and join 
#atari8.  There is many IRC servers on EFnet, chances are the 
one your on is on EFnet.


Subject: 9.1) What's this UUEncoding stuff (.uu, .uue files) all 

     UUEncode/UUdecode is a UNIX utility that will convert a 
binary file into 100% printable ASCII characters, so that the 
file may be posted or e-mailed anywhere a text message can go.  
The 8-bit Atari is perfectly capable of UUEncoding/UUdecoding as 
well.  On the archives:

Uudecode 1.2a by John Sangster - very functional.
  filenames: Archivers/uudecode.bas, Archivers/uudecode.doc

Yet Another UU-coder by John Dunning - both decoding/encoding.
  filename: Archivers/yau.arc, by ??? - "newer, cleaner, easier to 
  filename: Utilities/uue.arc

Dumas UU-coder by John Dunning
  filename: Cc65/dumasuu.arc


Subject: 9.2) What is an .arc file?

     A file with the extender .arc has been archived in a 
standard manner that is common in the MS-DOS world.  This is 
done to make the file shorter, so it takes up less space on 
your disk and it takes less time to transfer between computers.  
The archives contains several 8-bit Atari archivers fully 
compatible with this standard, including:

Super Un-Arc 2.3, Super Arc 2.0 by Bob Puff - highly 
  filenames:   Archivers/superarc.arc - both Super Un-Arc & 
                    Super Arc
               Archivers/suprarc2.arc - Super Arc
               Archivers/ - Super Un-Arc
               Archivers/supunarc.uue - Super Un-Arc


Subject: 9.3) What are the .DCM, .ATR, and .XFD file formats?

These are all filename extensions used to name files containing 
entire 8-bit Atari floppy disk images.

DCM - Disk Communicator format.  Invented by Bob Puff, for his Disk Communicator 3.2 
      Used when working with native Atari hardware.

ATR - Atari disk image format.  Invented by Nick Kennedy, for his SIO2PC project.
      Used when working with non-Atari hardware.

XFD - Xformer disk image format. Invented by Emulators Inc, for their ST Xformer emulator.
      Identical to ATR except without the 16 byte header.
      Used when working with non-Atari hardware.

PRO - APE ProSystem format.  Invented by Steven Tucker, for his APE ProSystem device.
      Used with APE, the Atari Peripheral Emulator.


Subject: 9.4) What are the .XMO and .BIN file formats?

XMO stands for XMODEM.  The idea was that the file was not 
plain text, but was a binary file.  As a binary file, it had to 
be downloaded using a file transfer protocol such as XMODEM.  
The use of ".xmo" as a filename extender was popular once, but 
has been discouraged for years.

BIN - another filename extension sometimes used to designate 
binary-load files.  Like .xmo, use of .bin is discouraged.


Subject: 11.1) What are the best terminal emulators available?

     Here are some of the more popular PD/freeware/shareware 
terminal programs available.

BobTerm 1.22, shareware by Bob Puff
     Emulates: VT52
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80
     Autodial: Yes
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: Yes
     Summary: Feature-filled; excellent for BBSing
     filename: Telecomm/bterm12.arc

Kermit-65 3.7, PD by John R. Dunning
     Emulates: VT100
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. in gr.8; 80 col. w/ XEP80 
     (sort of)
     File Xfer: Kermit
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Excellent VT100 emulation; rock-solid Kermit Xfers
     filenames:   Telecomm/k65v37.arc - latest version
                  Telecomm/k65doc.arc - documentation
                  Telecomm/k65src.arc - source code

OmniCom by CDY Consulting
     Emulates: VT100
     Text: 80 columns in gr.8
     File Xfer: XMODEM, Kermit
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Combination VT100, XMODEM, Kermit; buggy at file 
     filename: Telecomm/omnicom.arc

VT850 B1, shareware by Curtis Laser
     Emulates: VT100/VT102 (plus complete VT220 keymap)
     Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80
     File Xfer: None
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: Yes
     Summary: Excellent at VT100 on the XEP80; 1200bps top speed
     filename: Telecomm/vt850b1.arc

FlickerTerm 80 v.0.51, freeware by LonerSoft (Clay Halliwell)
     Emulates: VT100, IBM ANSI
     Text: 80 column via a special Graphics 0 screen (no hardware 
     File Xfer: None
     Autodial: No
     Backscroll buffer: No
     Capture-to-disk: No
     Summary: Fastest and most complete VT100 emulation; 
     readability a minus
     filename: ?????

Ice-T XE v. 2.72 (128K) or Ice-T 1.1 (48K) by Itay Chamiel
     Emulates: VT100
     Text: 80 column via a fast-scrolling graphics 8 screen
     File Xfer: XMODEM download
     Autodial: Yes (2.7 XE) or No (1.1)
     Backscroll buffer: Yes--8 screens (2.7 XE) or One screen 
     Capture-to-disk: Yes--up to 16K (2.7 XE) or No (1.1)
     Summary: Excellent for high-speed VT100 emulation


Subject: 11.2) Can I read/write 8-bit Atari disks on an IBM-PC?

There are several programs that allow an MS-DOS system to work 
with an Atari-format diskette.  The following require a DOS and 
disk drive on the Atari end capable of the SS/DD 180K format:

ATARIO by Dave Brandman w/ Kevin White - Reads SS/DD 180K Atari 
  filename: Diskutils/atario21.arc

SpartaRead by Oscar Fowler - Reads SS/DD 180K SpartaDOS disks.
  filename: Diskutils/sr.arc

UTIL by Charles Marslett - Reads/Writes SS/DD 180K Atari disks. 
  filename: Diskutils/dskutil.arc
     (Older versions are contained in pcxfer.arc, util.arc, and 

MyUTIL by Charles Marslett with Mark Vallevand, and
SpartaDOS disk utility by Mark Vallevand
  filename: Diskutils/
     includes best version of UTIL for read/write of SS/DD 180K 
     Atari disks, plus Mark's SpartaDOS disk utility v0.1e to 
     access 180K SpartaDOS disks

MyUTIL and the XF551 - tips from

]MyUtil works fine with the XF551. The XF551's speed is 300 rpm 
(sometimes even up to 303 rpm). I've got two XF551s and can 
read/write disks written on a PC with MyUtil on both with no 
problems. MyUtil even can write to a DS/DD disk, for a total of 
360 K, BUT: the ATARI disks not only have the bits inverted, the 
second side is also read BACKWARDS respect to PC disks. That is, 
when MyUtil on the PC writes to what it thinks is sector 721, it 
really is writing to sector 1440! Worse, if you take an ATARI 
disk with a file whose sectors get past sector 720, MyUtil will 
attempt to read the sector 2161-n instead of 'n', and you'll get 
a 'truncated record' error. The solution is simply to rewrite 
the code to take into account this (if sec>720 then 
sec=2161-sec). Let me know if you modify this. You don't know 
how frustrating it is to have to use only 180 K of a 360 K disk! 
I'm going to analyze the source code, but I don't know if I will 
be able to modify it properly. If someone does it before, please 
email me and send me an uuencoded copy or tell me where to get

Here's some advice on using the above utilities from (Hans Breitenlohner):

There are two technical obstacles to interchanging disks between
DD Atari drives and PC drives.

1. The Atari drive spins slightly slower (288 rpm instead of 300 
   rpm). If you format a disk on the Atari, then write sectors 
   on the PC, it is possible that the header of the next 
   physical sector will be overwritten, making that sector 
   unreadable.  (The next physical sector is usually the current 
   logical sector+2).  The solution to this is to format all
   disks on the PC.
       (Aside:  Does anybody know how this problem is handled on 
       the XF551?  Is it also slowed down?)
     Konrad Kokoszkiewicz, answers:
     "The XF551 disk drive is not slowed down - these drives are 
     spinning 300 rotations per minute. To prevent troubles with 
     read/write disks formatted and written on normal Atari 
     drives (288 rot/min), the main crystal frequency for the 
     floppy disk controller is 8.333 MHz (not 8 MHz, as in 1050, 
     for example)."

2. If the PC drive is a 1.2M drive there is the additional 
   problem of the track width.  The following is generally true 
   in the PC world:
    - disks written on 360k drives can be read on either drive
    - blank disk formatted and written on 1.2M drives can be 
      read on either kind
    - disks written on a 360k drive, and overwritten on a 1.2M 
      drive, can be read reliably only on a 1.2M drive.
    - disks previously formatted on a 360k drive, or formatted 
      as 1.2MB, and then reformatted on a 1.2M drive to 360k, 
      can be read reliably only on a 1.2M drive.
    (all this assumes you are using DD media, not HD).

   Solution: Use a 360k drive if you can.  If not, format disks 
   on the Atari for Atari to PC transfers, format truly blank 
   disks on the PC for PC to Atari transfers.

   Jon D. Melbo, sums it up this way:
   So a basic rule of themb when sharing 360KB floppies among 
   360KB & 1.2MB drives is: Never do any writes with a 1.2MB 
   drive to a disk that has been previously written to in a 
   360KB drive....UNLESS... you only plan on ever using that 
   disk in the 1.2Mb drive from then on out. Of course a disk 
   can be reformated in a particular drive any time for use in 
   that drive.   As long as you follow that rule, you can 
   utilize the backwards compatible 360KB modes that most 1.2MB 
   drives offer.

While the above work with SS/DD 180K Atari-format disks, the 
following combination of utilities can be used to work with 
SS/SD 90K Atari-format disks, and is currently the best bet for 
reading SS/ED 128K Atari-format disks.

AnaDisk 2.07, shareware by Sydex - Reads/Writes "any" 5.25" 
  filenames: Xf2/, Xf2/anadisk.txt
Deana by Nate Monson - converts AnaDisk dump files from Atari 
  filenames: Xf2/, Xf2/deana.txt

Explanation --> According to (Preston 
"As best as I can figure it out, if your PC drive happens to 
read FM disks (I'm not sure what the criteria for that is), 
then you can read single density disks on your PC by dumping the 
contents to a file with AnaDisk, and then using to 
convert the dump file into a usable format. For enhanced density 
disks, Anadisk generally only reads the first portion of each 
sector, but it demonstrates that it is possible for a PC drive 
to read enhanced density disks."


Subject: 11.3) Can I read/write MS-DOS disks on an 8-bit Atari?

a) Mule by Rick Cortese - Read/Write 180K MS-DOS disks with an 
Atari 1050 drive or equivalent.  Very limited.
  filenames: Diskutils/mule.arc, Diskutils/mule.exe, 

b) SIO2PC, described elsewhere in this FAQ List (section 12.4), 
can be used to read/write to a hard drive connected to an MS-DOS 
system.  This can also be a very effective file-transfer solution.

c) The XF551 3.5" Upgrades from Computer Software Services (see 
the companion vendor/developer list) allow the Atari XF551 disk 
drive to read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks.

d) The Floppy Board, the add-on to the Black-Box from Computer 
Software Services (see the companion vendor/developer list), 
allows both low density (360K 5.25", 720K 3.5"), and, in the 
case of the Deluxe Version, high density (1.2M 5.25", 1.44M 
3.5") external MS-DOS-standard floppy drives to be used on the 
Atari.  A utility is included to read/write MS-DOS formatted 
floppies in all supported densities.


Subject: 11.4) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable?

This section by cb541@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (James R. Gilbert)

A:  Simply put, you need a terminal program and an RS 232 port 
    on each computer.  The RS 232 ports need to be connected
    together using a 'null modem cable'.

    For up to 4800 bps, no flow control lines need be
    connected.  Just cross the transmit and receive lines
    and join the grounds together.  (Transmit is pin #2,
    receive is pin #3 and ground is pin #7 on the 25-pin

    The right hand pin on the 'long' side of a female 'D'
    connector is #1.  There are 13 holes on this 'long'
    side, 12 holes on the 'short' side.  The numbers go from
    #1 on the right to #13 on the left on the 'long' side
    and from #14 to #25 from right to left on the 'short'
    side. #25 is closest to being under #13.  A male
    connector is the mirror image of this.

    Most terminal programs allow a null connection, without a
    carrier detect.  Notably, '850 Express!' does not.

    A convenient way to make a null modem cable, up to about
    30 feet long, is to use two female DB25 connectors and
    some three or more conductor cable.  Using the two DB25
    female connectors allows unplugging your modem and
    plugging in the null modem cable.  This also avoids the
    confusion of the wide variety of serial port jacks on
    different computers.  Almost all computers connect into
    the modem via a DB25 connection.

    The SIO port on the Atari cannot be used directly.  An
    850 Interface Module, P:R:Connection, Multi I/O, Black
    Box (by Computer Software Services) or similar device
    that provides an RS232 port must be used.

    On the Atari, the port is a female DB9.  So you need a
    male DB9 to male DB25 modem cable to connect to your
    modem. So why not use this cable as your null modem
    cable as well?

    For higher speed connections, above about 9600 bps on the
    8-bit, you need the flow control lines.  You also need
    a Multi I/O or Black Box, which use the PBI (parallel bus),
    then you can go higher than 9600 bps.

    Following are pin assignments for a DB25 pin RS 232 C
                 13                       1
                  o o o o o o o o o o o o o
                   o o o o o o o o o o o o
                  25                     14

          (Above is female, male is mirror image.)

1.  Protective Ground        12.  Select Alternate Rate
2.  Transmit Data            15.  Transmit Clock (sync)
3.  Receive Data             17.  Receive clock (sync)
4.  RTS (Request to Send)    20.  Data Terminal Ready
5.  CTS (Clear to Send)      22.  Ring indicator
6.  Data Set Ready           23.  Select Alternate Rate
7.  Signal Ground            24.  Transmit Clock
8.  Carrier Detect

    A high speed cable would need not only pins 2 and 3 crossed
    but also pins 4 and 5 as well as 6 and 8.  Or better
    yet, make a true 25 wire, straight through cable and use
    a commercial null modem.  A commercial null modem is
    just a small device with the correct lines already

    (DTE = Data Terminal Equipment, i.e., your computer.
     DCE = Data Communications Equipment, i.e., your modem.)


Subject: 12.1) What 5.25" floppy disk drives are available?

Major contributors to this section: (Glenn M. Saunders) (Tomasz M. Tatar) (James Bradford) (Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz)

==> Atari 810
            SS SD           19.2Kbps standard

==> Happy 810
            SS SD           Warp speed

==> Atari 1050
            SS SD/ED        19.2Kbps standard

==> Happy 1050
            SS SD/ED/DD     Warp speed US Doubler/19.2 and 52k. 
track buffering

==> Super Archiver 1050
            SS SD/ED/DD     Ultra Speed 50+K

==> Speedy 1050
            SS SD/ED/DD     78K mode (European) used w/ Bibo-DOS 
(Compy Shop)

==> SuperMax 1050
            SS SD/ED/DD     19.2k and 52k (ultra speed)
by Super Products. Compatiable with SuperDOS and US Doubler

==> Lazer 1050
            SS SD/ED/DD     Another Happy clone; Compatible w/ 
US Doubler

==> Atari XF551
            SS/DS SD/ED/DD  38K burst mode usable only with 
SpartaDOS X, SuperDOS 5.1, TurboDOS, DOS XE, and patched 
SpartaDOS 3.2. XF DS system now considered "standard".

==> CSS XF551
            SS/DS SD/ED/DD  US Doubler compatible. Updates 
drive to work better and faster.  Also 3.5" upgrade available

==> Percom RFD4x-Sy
where: x=0 -> a single-sided drive
       x=4 -> a double-sided drive
       y=1 -> a single-drive unit
       y=2 -> a dual-drive unit

==> Percom AT88-Sy[PD]
where: y=1 -> a single-drive unit
       y=2 -> a dual-drive unit
       PD  -> equipped with a built-in parallel printer port

==> Trak ATD1
            SS SD

==> Trak ATD2
            SS SD/DD
Built in Diagnostics.  Track indicator.  Write protect switch.  
Built in parallel printer interface.  2k printer buffer 
(expandable).  Optional Turbo software on Eprom.

==> Trak AT-1
            SS SD/DD        Slave

==> Indus GT
            SS SD/ED/DD     Synchromesh mode usable with 
SpartaDOS X and DOSXL only.

==> Astra Double-D?
            SS/DS SD/DD?    standard /LEDs and such

==> Rana 1000
            SS SD/ED/DD     standard /LEDs and such can format 
disks on a stand alone basis

==> TOMS 720
double head disk drive, 5.25", with mounted interface 
Centronics, chips: CPU 8085, WD2797, PIA 8255 (for handle 
Centronics), 32 KB ROM, 8 KB RAM ROM contains: OS of drive, 
MYDOS 4.50 and some utilities (copy, format, etc.) ROM is seen 
by computer as drive D1: (if drive is open), and D3: (when drive
has number D1:) or D4: (when drive has number D2:). It makes 
possible load DOS from ROMdisk during booting system.
Formats of disks:
- SS/SD - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 128 bytes = 90 KB
- SS/ED - 40 tracks, 26 sects, 128 bytes = 130 KB
- SS/ED - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 180 KB
- SS/ID - IBM S-9 - 40 tracks, 9 sects, 512 bytes = 180 KB
- DS/DD - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 360 KB
- DS/QD - 80 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 720 KB
- DS/ID - IBM D-9 - 40 tracks, 9 sects, 512 bytes = 360 KB
Transmition modes:
- normal - 19200 bps
- Turbo - 70000 bps
- Ultra Speed - 70000 bps
Also tracks buffering.

==> AS SN-360
double head disk drive, 5.25", CPU 8051, controler WD2797
19200 bps
Available formats:
- SS/SD - (FM) single sided, single density - 90 KB
- SS/ED - (MFM) single sided, enhanced density - 130 KB
- SS/DD - (MFM) single sided, double density - 180 KB
- DS/DD - (MFM) double sided, double density - 360 KB

==> TOMS 710
(The newest polish disk drive and probably the best one)
Similar to TOMS 720, one more format:
- double sided, 80 tracks, IBM (720 KB)
Transmition modes:
- standard 19200 bps
- TOMS Turbo (loaded from ROMdisk if drive is open) - 67000 bps
- Ultra Speed (QMEG-OS, SpartaDOS) - 67000 bps
Also tracks buffering.
ROMdisk contain:
- MYDOS 4.50
- TURBO - turn on/off TOMS Turbo mode
- BASIC - turn on/off Atari Basic
- AUTORUN.SYS - ramdisk
Also TOMS Navigator instead of DUP.SYS. It is program similar to 
Norton Commander on PCs. IBM-ST copier on additional disk.

==> LDW Super 2000
            SS SD/ED/DD     19200 bps or 67000 bps
CPU Z80A, ROM 4 KB, RAM 256 B.  Some difficulties with ED

==> LDW CA2001
            SS SD/ED/DD     19200 bps or 38400 bps
CPU Z80A, ROM 4 KB, RAM 256 B.  Some difficulties with ED

==> LDW CA2002
            SS/DS SD/ED/DD  19200 bps, 70000 with SpartaDOS
CPU 8040, ROM 4 KB, RAM 256 B

==> Floppy board various
            Any standard    very fast parallel
DOS-transparent. Requires Black Box. DS system configurable for
XF Percom or ATR style

==> HDI various
            Any standard    very fast SIO? European

==> SWP ATR-8000
            Any standard    standard except 1.2 meg and unique 
DS system (HD) nice Z80 CP/M system in which CP/M drive acccess 
is parallel only thus faster.

==> Atari 1450XLD drives
            DS SD/ED DD?    standard, requires DOS4.  unusual 
DS system. Only prototypes exist.

Double head disk drive 360 KB/5,25" or 720 KB/3,5", controller 
WD 1772.
Available formats:
= standard SS/SD 90 KB
= standard SS/ED 130 KB
= standard SS/DD 180 KB
= 'cylindric' DS/DD 360 KB (XF-551 uncompatible)
= 'cylindric' DS/QD 720 KB (TOMS-compatible; 720 KB drives only)
Any other capabilities depend on a special software.
Transmission mode:
- parallel: real speed 11.25 kilobytes per second with DOS or 
22.5 kilobytes per second with special track-copier.
Because of the 1772-registers available in 6502 i/o pages 
($D100), the KARIN MAXI drives look full-programmable.
Preferred systems: My-DOS, SDX.

==> XFD-601B
Double head 360 KB/5,25" disk drive. Controller WD 1772, CPU 
Available formats:
- standard SS/SD 90 KB
- standard SS/ED 130 KB
- standard SS/DD 180 KB
- standard DS/DD 360 KB  (XF-551 compatible)
Transmission modes:
- normal 19200 bps
- Top Drive 1050 70000 bps
- Indus GT (synchromesh) 70000 bps (GTSYNC.COM and INDUS.SYS are 
  not necessary; full-compatibel with the SDX)
- Ultra Speed 70000 bps (full-compatible with the older 
Customized sector skew. In fact, the XFD-601B is a original 
clone of the XF-551.

==> XFD-602B
The two XFD-601B drives in the one unit.


Subject: 12.2) How can I use 3.5" floppy disks with my 8-bit 

to be written.  volunteers?

- Amdek
- XF551 upgrades (CSS)
- Floppy Board (CSS)
- Percom drive upgrades

==> Atari XF521
            3.5" system     Unreleased


Subject: 12.3) What do I need to connect a hard drive to my 
8-bit Atari?

 original by (Glenn M. Saunders)

For starters, you'll need to obtain one of the following 

==> Corvus hard drive (10 megabytes)
Fast but still relatively slow I/O, kludge through joystick 
ports for 800.

==> KPI Hard Disk Drive Interface (formerly Supra)
from K-Products ( - Bob Klaas)
Some limitations on drive type and size and total number of 
drives in sys.

==> Multi I/O (MIO) (formerly from ICD)
from Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe) 
    ( - Mike Hohman)
256 byter per sector restriction.  256K and 1 meg ramdisk 
Printer and modem, modem will handle 19.2K bps

==> Black Box
from Computer Software Services (CSS) 
    ( - Bob Puff)
Will handle all SCSI drives. Allows 9 drive access for MYDOS. 
    Currently the only modem interface with CTS/RTS hardware 
    flow control. 19.2K ready.

==> SWP ATR-8000
Rare daughterboard for hard drives.
I/O is probably fairly slow on this baby and there may be DOS 

==> IDE Hard Drive Interface
from Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz and Jacek Zuk
(see )
o  Maximum drive capacity: 16777215 physical blocks on each 
o  Maximum number of partitions: 16
o  Maximum capacity of a partition: 16777215 logical sectors
o  Logical sector length: 256 or 512 bytes
o  Average speed (in kilobytes per second, WDC 130AB drive):
   -  Native mode, sequence of sectors (R): 75
   -  Emulation mode, sequence of sectors (R): 43
   -  Emulation mode, back sequence (R): 28
   -  Emulation mode, random sectors (R): 13
   -  Emulation mode, same sector (R): 29
   -  Emulation mode, DOS file (W): 7
   -  Emulation mode, DOS file (R): 36
o  Booting from any partition (on the standard XL OS)
o  Write protection capability
o  8 jumpers to set the device number for the operating system
o  Sweet 16 compatibility

==> Fine Tooned Engineering Multi I/O II
An IDE interface.  Released?

==> MSC IDE-Harddisk-Controller
created by Steve Birmanns and Matthias Belitz in Germany
*	real device for the parallel-port of the Atari XL-Series
*	up to 240 partitions per harddisk supported
*	emulates D1: until D9: of disk devices (access to 9 partitions 
at one time)
*	full bootable from any partition (with standard XL-OS)
*	write protectition capability
*	supports master/slave configuration
*	more than 30 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (reading)
*	more than 10 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (writing)
*	access of ATAPI-CDROM with additional software


Subject: 12.4) What is SIO2PC?

 Original text by Dave Paterson,

SIO2PC is a cable and software combination that lets you use 
your PC as up to 4 drives for your 8-bit.  Drives can be SD, ED, 
DD or custom sizes up to 16 megs.  SIO2PC also lets you redirect 
the printer output to your PC printer or to a file on the PC.  
High speed drives are emulated (a la US Doubler).

All these functions are transparent at the Atari end; you never 
notice the difference between SIO2PC and regular drives, except 
that the SIO2PC drives are faster than any others (except 
Ramdisks and PBI interface drives).

Several different designs for the SIO2PC hardware are floating 
around.  Best contact the author for the latest details.

SIO2PC 4.13 is shareware by Nick Kennedy,


Subject: 12.5) What kinds of monitors can I use with my Atari?

In general, you either need a Composite Video monitor, or a 
standard TV.

You'll need a video cable (not detachable on the 400/800), and a 
TV Switch Box. Used with VHF Channel 2 or 3.

The 8-bit Atari produces a color Composite Video signal, plus
separate chroma (color) and luminance (brightness) signals which 
the best composite video monitors can take advantage of.  
Popular examples of such monitors include the Commodore 1702 and 
1804 (and many others).

The pinout of the Monitor port is in the pinout section of this 
FAQ list.


-the 400 and North American 600XL lack a monitor port entirely.  
 They can only be used with a TV.

-the 800XL lacks separate chroma/lumi (can be added via hardware 

-the XE Game System provides an RCA-style jack in place of the 
 Monitor port; so it provides Composite Video but lacks separate 
 chroma\lumi signals

-the XEP80 Interface Module produces a monochrome Composite 
 Video signal via an RCA-style jack.  This higher-resolution 
 signal produces crisp, clear 80 column text on 80-column 
 monochrome composite video monitors.

Jerry Jessop, explains why French Ataris 
produce fewer colors:

"I will tell you why it only has monochrome out, because it's 
SECAM and a SECAM GTIA was never produced. The PAL GTIA is used 
in France and the Lum outputs are run into an onboard encoder to 
produce a "psudo" color depending on the Luminance output, 
composite only. This is why a SECAM VCS or 800 has nowhere near 
the same number of colors (16) availible as a PAL or NTSC unit 

The FGTIA was never completed as the market size did not warrant 
the expense. The largest SECAM market is not France but the 
Soviet Union (former) and in 80-84 sales of these items there 
were not possible."


Subject: 13.1) What's the best DOS for the Atari?

This is a matter of opinion, but general consensus is that all 
8-bit Atari users should treat themselves to either MYDOS or 
SpartaDOS to appreciate the power of the system.

Either MYDOS or SpartaDOS will work with almost any disk drive, 
up to 8 drives or hard disk partitions, and ramdisk.

MYDOS is modelled after Atari DOS 2.0S/2.5, but provides 
subdirectory and hard-drive support.  MYDOS 4.53 is freeware 
from Wordmark Systems (Charles Marslett and Bob Puff). There are 
two versions of MYDOS 4.53, one uses 3 digit sector numbers 
where possible, known as 4.53/3; the other, known as 4.53/4,
uses 4 digits minimum.  Complete documentation about the disk 
formats and commands, as well as the source code, is available.

SpartaDOS is a completely different command-line DOS modelled 
after MS-DOS, though it is perfectly capable of reading all 
Atari DOS and MYDOS disks. SpartaDOS 3.2g is disk-based; 
SpartaDOS X 4.22 is cartridge-based and includes many additional 
features. SpartaDOS is available from Fine Tooned Engineering
(see companion vendor/developer list).  SpartaDOS 3.3a and 3.3b 
were rewritten by Stephen J. Carden for use with BBS Express 

It is recommended that all 8-bit Atari users own at least DOS 
2.5 for complete compatibility with existing software, and then 
choose either SpartaDOS or MYDOS as they see fit.  DOS 2.5, 
MYDOS and SpartaDOS are all available on the archives.
  filenames:   Os/dos25.arc (DOS 2.5)
               Fte/fte32g.arc (SpartaDOS 3.2)
               Os/mydos453.dcm (MYDOS - latest version)
               Os/mydos45m.arc (MYDOS - latest complete doc's)

Any other versions of DOS all 8-bit Atari users should be aware 


Subject: 13.2) What hardware has Atari created in the 8-bit 
computer line?

400 Home Computer      (1979) 8/16K, membrane keyboard, 400/800 
800 Home Computer      (1979) 8/16/48K, two cartridge slots, 
  400/800 OS
1200XL Home Computer   (1982) 64K, early XL OS, F1-F4 keys, 4 
600XL Home Computer    (1983) 16K, BASIC, PBI, XL OS
800XL Home Computer    (1983) 64K, BASIC, PBI, XL OS
65XE Personal Computer (1985) same as 800XL minus PBI
130XE Personal Computer(1985) same as 65XE with 128K plus ECI
800XE Personal Computer(1987?)same as 130XE but 64K. Mostly 
  eastern Europe.
XE Game System         (1987) same as 65XE plus Missile Command, 
  detach keybd

410 Program Recorder       -Japan and Hong Kong versions
810 Disk Drive             -SS/SD 90K with DOS 1 or DOS 2.0S,
  MPI&Tandon vers.
820 40-Column Printer      -
822 Thermal Printer        -40 col.
825 80-Column Printer      -req. 850
830 Acoustic Modem         -300 baud req. 850, with Telelink I 
835 Direct Connect Modem   -300 baud, with Telelink II software
850 Interface Module       -4 9-pin serial, 1 15-pin parallel 
  ports, beige & black metal versions
1010 Program Recorder      -Sanyo and Chelco versions
1020 Color Printer         -40 col.(80 by command) print/plot in 
  4 colors
1025 80-Column Printer     -7-pin dot matrix
1027 Letter-Quality Printer-80 col. letter quality =Mann-Tally 
  Riteman LQ
1029 Printer               -7-pin dot matrix, same as Commodore 
1030 Direct Connect Modem  -300 baud, with ModemLink software
1050 Disk Drive            -SS/ED 128K with DOS 3 or DOS 2.5
1064                       -64K RAM module for 600XL
XC11 Program Recorder
XC12 Program Recorder
XM301 Modem                -300 baud, with XE Term software
XMM801 Printer             -80 col.  Ribbon: Mannesman/Tally 
XDM121 Printer             -80 col.letter quality. Ribbon: 
  Silver Reed CF130
XF551 Disk Drive           -DS/DD 360K with DOS XE
XEP80 Interface Module     -80 col. video display and DB25 
  parallel port
SX212 Modem                -1200 baud, rarely with SX-Express! 

Atari 8-bit vaporware computers: (note some are more vaporous 
than others)
800D     (Developers Bus System)
600      600XL, all black case
1000     Sweet 16 Project, lower end model.  Became the 1200XL
1000-X   Sweet 16 Project, higher end model.  Became the 1200XL
1200     1200XL internally, many slight cosmetic differences
1200XLS  1200XL Show prototype, top-mounted cartridge slot
800XLF   late 800XL with a redesigned motherboard, plus the 
         FREDDY chip
1250XLD  Earlier name for the 1450XLD
1400XL   800XL plus modem, speech synth.(looks like a 1200XL)
1450XL   1400XL plus room for 2 internal 5.25" floppy drives
1450XLD  1400XL plus 5.25" floppy drive
1600XL   ????
65XEP    65XE plus 3.5" floppy drive, 5" green monitor
65XEM    65XE plus AMIE/AMY sound chip

Atari 8-bit vaporware peripherals:(note some are more vaporous 
than others)
815 Dual Disk Drive     -2 x SS/DD 180K with DOS 2.0D
1055                    -a 1050 (SS/ED) with a 3.5" mechanism
1060 CP/M Add-On Module -Z-80 CPU, 64K RAM, CP/M 2.2 OS, 80 
                         column display
1090 XL Expansion System-5 PBI slots, CP/M/MS-DOS/Apple II 
XM128                   -12" green monitor w/ built-in 80-column 
XC1411                  -composite 14" color monitor
XF521                   -5.25" floppy drive - 1050 compatible, 
                         in XE style
XC35                    -an XF551 with a 3.5" mechanism
XTM201                  -non-impact printer
XTC201                  -non-impact color printer


Subject: 13.3) What are the power-supply requirements for my 
               Atari components?

Thanks to Matthias Belitz, for the 
European data in this section.  I need more international help!

As with the rest of this FAQ list, please let me know if any of 
this information conflicts with the units you have.

The most important information is the voltage (in volts) 
required, and whether you need a transformer (AC output) or an 
adapter (DC output).  The power (in watts) and current (in 
amperes) specifications of the original equipment as presented 
here should be regarded as minimum values. Higher-than-specified 
power and current capacities are entirely usable, and often 
preferable because such supplies run cooler and last longer.

Relevant law of physics:
Power (in watts) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts)

N O R T H  A M E R I C A: INPUT = 115-120 V AC, 50/60Hz
9 V AC  5.4 VA  (600 mA)  Atari#CO62195  transformer:
9 V AC  ???? VA  (??? A)  Atari#CO61516  transformer:
9 V AC  15.3 VA  (1.7 A)  Atari#CO14319  transformer:
9 V AC  18 VA  (2.0 A)  Atari#CA014748  transformer:
9 V AC  18 VA  (2.0 A)  Atari#CA016804  transformer:
9 V AC  31 VA  (3.4 A)  Atari#CO17945  transformer:
9 V AC  50 VA  (5.6 A)  Atari#CA017964  transformer:
9.5 V AC  40 VA  (4.2 A)  Atari#CO61636  transformer:
24 V AC  3.6 VA  (150 mA)  Atari#CA016751  transformer:
5 V DC  1.0 A  (5.0 W)  Atari#CO70042  adapter:
  65XE,XE Game System
5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  Atari#CO61982  adapter:
  600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE Game System
5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  Atari#CA024814  adapter:
  600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE Games System
5 V DC  ??? A  (??? W)  Atari#CO81982  adapter:
6 V DC  300 mA  (1.8 W)  Atari#???????  adapter:
  "410P" (vaporware)
9 V DC  200 mA  (1.8 W) adapter:
  MPP1000C (the modem from MPP, interfaces via a joystick port)
9 V DC  500 mA  (4.5 W)  Atari#CO16353  adapter:
9 V DC  500 mA  (4.5 W)  Atari#CA014034  adapter:
9.3 V DC  1.93 A  (18 W)  Atari#CO18187  adapter:
  Indus GT,5200
11.5 V DC  1.95 A  (22 W)  Atari#CA019141  adapter:
  Indus GT,5200
5 V / 12 V DC  1.1 A  (5.5 W / 13.2 W)  Atari#CO62297/DV1450  

E U R O P E  (and elsewhere?) INPUT = 220 V AC, 50 Hz
5 V DC  1,8 A,          #CO61763-107: 800XL
5 V DC  1,5 A  (7,5 W)  #CO61763-34 : 800XL (U.K., 240 V AC in)
5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  #CO61763-11 : 65XE,800XL,800XE
two ones with the same part number, but different cases and 
input Values :#1, 65XE (Poland, made in Taiwan), Input 22 VA
              #2, 800XL, Input 26 VA
9 V AC  27 VA  (3.0 A)   CO60592-34 : 1050
9V AC 0,5 A,             CO#61516   : 1010
9,3V AC, 1,66 A         CO# (not printed), FW 6799: 800

These draw their power from the SIO +5 V:
  XM301 (60 mA),XC12,ICD/FTe P:R:Connection

Draws power from the 600XL PBI:

These have built-in power supplies (plug directly into the 

The power supply requirements for the following are still 
??? V DC  ???? A  (???? W)  Atari#CA060535  adapter:

XC11 program recorder (no brick needed -> internal or SIO 

The ICD/FTe Multi I/O (MIO), all versions, can use both AC and 
DC supplies. But stick to voltages of at least 6.2-7.2 V.


Subject: 13.4) What are the pinouts for the...?

Serial I/O (SIO) Port (all machines):
   2   4   6   8  10  12
 1   3   5   7   9  11  13
1. Clock Input             8. Motor Control
2. Clock Output            9. Proceed
3. Data Input             10. +5V/Ready
4. Ground                 11. Audio Input
5. Data Output            12. +12V (400,800 only. 
6. Ground                 13. Interrupt
7. Command

Cartridge Slot ("Left" slot on all machines; "Right" slot on 
800 only):
A  B  C  D  E  F  H  J  K  L  M  N  P  R  S
1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15
 1. ~S4(Left) R/~W late(Right) A. RD4(Left) B02(Right)
 2. A3                         B. GND
 3. A2                         C. A4
 4. A1                         D. A5
 5. A0                         E. A6
 6. D4                         F. A7
 7. D5                         H. A8
 8. D2                         J. A9
 9. D1                         K. A12
10. D0                         L. D3
11. D6                         M. D7
12. ~S5(Left) ~S4(Right)       N. A11
13. +5V                       P. A10
14. RD5(Left) RD4(Right)       R. R/~W
15. ~CCTL                      S. B02

Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI) (130XE and 800XE only):
A  B  C  D  E  F  H
1  2  3  4  5  6  7
A. Reserved   1. ~EXSEL
B. ~IRQ       2. ~RST
C. ~HALT      3. ~D1XX
D. A13        4. ~MPD
E. A14        5. Audio
F. A15        6. ~REF
H. GND        7. +5V

Monitor Jack (all but 400, North American 600XL, XE Game 
3       1
 5     4
1. Composite Luminance  (not on North American 600XL's)
2. Ground
3. Audio Output
4. Composite Video
5. Composite Chroma (not on 800XL,1200XL; grounded on 600XL)

Power Adapter Plug (all but 400,800,1200XL,1400XL,1450XLD):
  7   6
3       1
 5     4
1. +5V
2. Shield
3. Ground
4. +5V
5. Ground
6. +5V
7. Ground

Controller Port (4 on 400/800, 2 on all others):
1   2   3   4   5
  6   7   8   9
1. (Joystick) Forward Input
2. (Joystick) Back Input
3. (Joystick) Left Input
4. (Joystick) Right Input
5. B Potentiometer Input
6. Trigger Input / Light Pen Input. Port 4 only on 400
7. +5V
8. Ground
9. A Potentiometer Input

Parallel Bus Interface (PBI) (600XL and 800XL only):
 1 3 5 7  9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
  1. GND ground                2. External select
  3. A0 Address output         4. A1
  5. A2                        6. A3
  7. A4                        8. A5
  9. A6                       10. GND
 11. A7                       12. A8
 13. A9                       14. A10
 15. A11                      16. A12
 17. A13                      18. A14
 19. GND                      20. A15
 21. D0 Data (bidirectional)  22. D1
 23. D2                       24. D3
 25. D4                       26. D5
 27. D6                       28. D7
 29. GND                      30. GND
 31. Phase 2 clock output     32. GND
 33. NC Reserved              34. Reset output
 35. (IRQ) Interrupt request  36. Ready input
 37. NC                       38. External decoder output
 39. NC                       40. Refresh output
 41. Column address output    42. GND
 43. Math pack disable input  44. Row addr strobe
 45. GND                      46. Latch read/write out
 47. NC (+5V on 600XL only)   48. NC (+5V on 600XL only, used to 
                                  power 1064)
 49. Audio input              50. GND

R1: Serial port DB9P (850 Interface Module):
5   4   3   2   1                      _________________________
  9   8   7   6                       / DB25P
1. DTR - Data Terminal Ready    (out) +  20
2. CRX - Signal (carrier) Detect (in) +  8
3. XMT - Transmitted Data       (out) +  2
4. RCV - Received Data           (in) +  3
5. GND - Signal Ground                +  7
6. DSR - Data Set Ready          (in) +  6
7. RTS - Request to Send        (out) +  4
8. CTS - Clear to Send           (in) +  5
No connection to shield               + Frame - to the shield 

R2: Serial port (850 Interface Module):
5   4   3   2   1
  9   8   7   6
1. DTR
3. Send Data
4. Receive Data
5. Signal Ground
6. DSR

R3: Serial port (850 Interface Module):
5   4   3   2   1
  9   8   7   6
1. DTR
3. Send Data
4. Receive
5. Signal Ground
7. RTS
8. -8 Volts

R4: Serial port (850 Interface Module):
5   4   3   2   1
  9   8   7   6
1. Send Data +
3. Send Data -
7. Receive Data +
9. Receive Data - (20 mA)

P: Parallel port (850 Interface Module) DB15P:
      8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  ____________________________
       15 14 13 12 11 10  9  / 36 pin Centronics (male)
1. Data Strobe               +   1
2. D0                        +   2
3. D1                        +   3
4. D2                        +   4
5. D3                        +   5
6. D4                        +   6
7. D5                        +   7
8. D6                        +   8
9. Data Pull up (+5v)        +
10. -                        +
11. Ground                   +  16
12. Fault                    +  32
13. Busy                     +  11
14. -                        +
15. D7                       +   9
No connection to shield      + Frame - to the shield wire

P: Parallel port (XEP80 Interface Module):
    13  12  11  10   9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1
      25  24  23  22  21  20  19  18  17  16  15  14
    1. Strobe
  2-9. Parallel Data
   10. Not Used
   11. Busy
12-17. Not Used
18-25. Ground


Subject: 13.5) What BBS software can be used on the Atari?

This section mostly by (Winston Smith)

  o  A.M.I.S. BBS --  The A.C.E. Message Information Service.
                      This BBS was written in BASIC by the Atari 
Computer Enthusiasts computer club (was it the Michigan 
chapter?).  It included designs for a ring-detector.  You needed 
a sector editor and had to allocate message space by hand, hex 
byte by hex byte.

  o  FoReM BBS --  Friends of Rickey Moose BBS.
                        At the time, there were a lot of BBSes 
around called things such as "FORUM-80" and "BULLET-80", ergo 
the name.  FoReM BBS was the first truly RBBS-like BBS for the 
ATARI 8-bit.  It was programmed in BASIC and was somewhat 
crashy.  I think that this is the great-grandparent of the 
FOREM-XE BBSes that survive today.

Matt Singer, writes:
FoReM BBS derived from an early AMIS. When multiple message 
areas were added the name was extended to FoReM 26M.  Then, When 
OSS released BASIC XL the program was rehacked and called 
FoReM XL... Bill Dorsey wrote most of the Assembler routines 
(where is he now?).

  o  ABBCS --  The ANTIC Bulletin Board Construction Set.
               The user design of the ABBCS was very good.  It 
sported features such as intra-line editors.  Unfortunately, the 
coding of the ABBCS was really poor.  You could practically blow 
on your keyboard and crash this BBS.  The BBS would sometimes 
crash several times a day.

  o  NITE-LITE BBS --  Paul Swanson's BBS with RAM disk.
                       Paul Swanson was a programmer from the 
Boston, Massachusetts, USA, area.  I'm not sure whether his BBS 
for the Atari 8-bit has been placed into the public domain or 
not.  This BBS was the first to support a RAMdisk, which Paul 
Swanson called a "V:" device for "virtual disk".  This BBS was 
written in Atari BASIC and required a joystick hardware "dongle" 
device.  This was notable as being one of the first Atari 8-BIT 
BBSes that could actually go for a week without having to be 
rebooted.  Pointers to the message base were kept in an Atari 
"very long string" (for which Atari BASIC is famous).  The BBS 
would only have problems (for the most part) if this string 
became corrupted.

  o ATKEEP --  An Atari 8-bit version of CITADEL BBS.
               I believe that AT-KEEP, like FOREM-XE, requires 
the use of the commercial BASIC XE cartridge to run.  This BBS 
program was very popular around Louisiana, USA, from what I 

  o Benton's SMART BBS --  BBS written in BASIC by Marco Benton.
                           This program is written entirely in 
BASIC.  It expects to be running under a SpartaDOS environment.  
This was a problem until very recently, when the disk-based 
version of SpartaDOS was re-released as shareware. This BBS 
program uses a "modem clock string" rather than an R-Time 8 
cartridge in order to retrieve the current time. It also comes 
with an Atari BASIC game door called "Sabotage".

  o FOREM-XE --  FOREM using BASIC XE.
                 This version of FOREM BBS requires the 
commercial BASIC XE cartridge in order to run.  It is in the 
public domain and can import and export messages from the Atari 
PRO! BBS EXPRESS-NET (7-bit text only, control ATASCII graphics 
are reserved for message data-structure bytes). FOREM-XE BBS is 
still currently in use as we speak, and may be reached via
the PRO! EXPRESS-NET as long as the cross-networking "transnet" 
is still in effect.

  o The BBS Express  --  PRO! BBS demo program.
                         This is the public domain version of 
EXPRESS!-BBS, which is the Keith Ledbetter companion project of 
the EXPRESS!-TERM terminal program of days gone by.  I am not 
familiar with this program.  I think that it is written in 
Action! and only supports XMODEM Checksum transfers.  I have 
never called or seen this program demonstrated.

  o OASIS JUNIOR III --  OASIS BBS demo program.
                         OASIS JUNIOR III is the --ALL MACHINE 
LANGUAGE-- demo version of the OASIS BBS program.  OASIS is very 
crash-resistant and comes with a "dial out" screen so that the 
Sysop can use the BBS as a terminal program to call and fetch 
files without having to bring the BBS down and reload a terminal 
program.  OASIS supports "Door programs" which it refers to as 
"OASIS PAL modules".  This OASIS demo module comes with an
excellent message system.  The OASIS file system is one of the 
most complicated that I have ever seen.  It consists of "file 
libraries" with suites of "file types".  There is quite a bit 
of overhead involved in performing a download (which may be a 
good thing, as it discourages file hogs).  There is a commercial 
version of OASIS called "OASIS IV" that performs networking.  
There was an OASIS network between Boston, Massachusets, USA 
and Murfreesboro(SP?), Tennessee, USA.  Occasionally word of 
the OASIS IV developers reaches the network from New Zealand or 

  o Frank Walters BBS --  I know nothing about this BBS except 
                          that Frank Walters wrote it.

  o Carina BBS -- a product of Shadow Software.  See the Vendor 

  o BBS Express! Professional -- a product of K-Products.  See 
                                 Vendor List.

  o OASIS IV -- a product of ???


Subject: 13.6) What versions of Atari BASIC or the CTIA/GTIA 
               chip do I have?

Atari BASIC:

At the READY prompt, enter "? PEEK(43234)"

If the result is:  You have Revision:
     162                  A
     96                   B
     234                  C

Freddy Offenga, adds:

there's another good answer (IMO):

You can also take a look at the part numbers on the IC's
inside your Atari and compare them with the numbers from
the following table:

Part#                  Version
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
CO12402 + CO14502         A
CO60302A                  B
CO24947A                  C

CTIA or GTIA installed?

In BASIC, type POKE 623,64 [RETURN] and if the screen blackens, 
you have the GTIA chip.  If it stays blue, you have the old 
CTIA chip.

By the way, apparently no CTIA-equipped Ataris were shipped to 


Subject: 13.7) Which versions of the Operating System (OS) are 

This section written by Freddy Offenga,

The following Operating Systems exist for the Atari 8-bit:

Rev.  System(s)  Models    Size   Part Nr(s)
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A     NTSC       400/800   10kB   CO12499B, CO14599B, 12399B (*)
A     PAL        400/800   10kB   CO15199, CO15299, CO12399B
B     NTSC       400/800   10kB   (?)
B     PAL        400/800   10kB   (?) (*)
1 A   NTSC/PAL   1200XL    16kB   CO60616A, CO60617A
1 B   NTSC/PAL   1200XL    16kB   CO60616B, CO60617B (?) (*)
1     NTSC/PAL   600XL     16kB   CO62024
2     NTSC/PAL   XL/XE     16kB   CO61598B
3     NTSC/PAL   XE        16kB   C300717
4     NTSC/PAL   XEGS      16kB   C101687

(?) more information or confirmation required

(*) these versions should exist, although I've not seen them.
    If you have one (or more?) of these, please contact me.

The 400/800 O.S's consist of three ROMs (two 4kB and one 2kB).


Subject: 13.8) What games support 4 simultaneous players on the 

The following games support 4 player head-to-head play.  
Remember, only the 400 and 800 computer models sport 4 
controller ports.

Asteroids, Basketball, Breakout, Dandy, M.U.L.E., Maze War, 
Silicon Warrior, Survivor.

Thanks to (Jeff M Lodoen) for initial 


Subject: 13.9) Why should I disconnect the 810/1050 power supply 
               before connecting or disconnecting SIO cables?

Rich Mier writes:

You've been plugging and unplugging the SIO cable with the 1050 
power pack plugged in, right?  That's a no-no.  Most of the time 
it's Okay, but about 1 in 10, 20 times, it will blow out 'U-1'.  
It's a CA/LM 3086 I.C. at the right, rear of the main board.  A 
14 pin DIL chip.  Actually it is an array of 5 transistors.

Unplug the power pack from the 1050, then unplug the SIO cable.  
Power can be ON on the CPU.  The problem has to do with the 
secondary winding of the Power Pack.  Remember, the problem only 
occurs 1 out of 10 - 20 times that you do it, not all the time.

It doesn't really matter if the 1050 Transformer has power on or 
off, it 'Might' happen if plugged into the 1050.  It is really 
bad on 810's.

One thing, if the system has been turned off for, oh say, 5 - 10 
minutes it won't matter.  By then all the capacitors should be 
bled(sc?) to 0 volts.


Subject: 13.10) What is Omnimon?

--This section was written by Scott Charles,

Omnimon is a add in board for the Atari 400/800 series of 
computers and a replacement OS chip for the xl/xe series of 
computers. The original Omnimon board fit onto the OS board in 
the 800 series and had a switch attached to it to disable the 
board. The 400 series required you to bend the circuit board 
into a right angle for it to fit inside the 400's case. (It was
designed to do this.). The Xl/Xe version replaces the OS Rom 
chip inside the computer with one that contains the Omnimon 
code, and a revised OS to make the XL more compatible (no 
translator disks needed).

Omnimon itself is a machine language monitor residing from 
$C000-$CFFF, with a few variations. It was designed in 1981 by 
David C. Young (who also wrote Cartcopy, a copier for the right 
slot of the 800) of CDY Consulting in Texas. The first software 
revision of Omnimon had a few basic commands and was only 4K 
long, only for the 400/800. The second revision required the 
addition of a bank select switch, and was 8K long. Since it was 
addressed by the 400/800 as 4K, when you needed to use the code 
in the other bank, all the text on the screen flips upside down, 
you flip the switch and hit any key. The Xl and Xe versions of 
Omnimon do their bank selecting through the normal XL port for
this function, so it is seamless.

So what can you use Omnimon for? Its main claim to fame is its 
ability to interupt any running program by pressing and holding 
the SELECT-OPTION-RESET keys. Depending on the sequence you 
press determines what kind of warm boot the Atari does. 
SELECT+RESET does NO warm boot, preserving the stack and flag
values of the 6502. OPTION+RESET allows a warm boot (as if you 
had just pressed RESET) and interupts the vector at $C 
(initialation vector).

I think you can see where we are going with this - Omnimon was 
developed as a machine language developer's tool, much in the 
same way that the Happy modification was developed for 
legitimate backups. I.E. far more people use both products for 
software piracy. If you have an Omnimon! in your machine and you 
try to boot up an Electronic Arts program, for example, you will 
get a message that says "REMOVE ROM AT $C000", and the program 
hangs. (Hence,the need for the disable switch on the 400/800 
version. There is no way to disable the xl/xe version, just 
switch it to an alternative OS.) The 400/800 version, since the 
disable switch just deselects the mapping of Omnimon to $c000 
area, can be switched on and off at will.

I myself did not know what Omnimon was used for until I was 
using a sector editor on a program called Pharaoh's Pyramid, 
from Master Control Software. On it is a sector that reads, 
"REMOVE OMNIMON YOU DIRTY PIRATE". This got me to thinking, 
what does that mean? After about 5 months of playing around 
with the Omnimon board, I figured out how to use it to pirate 
software. In fact, it can be used to make most boot disks into 
binary files, and remove copy protection from countless more.

At the risk of sounding melodramatic, I can safely say that 
Omnimon hastened the demise of the Atari 8 bit computer by 
2-3 years, because of its power.


Subject: 13.11) What is the difference between NTSC and PAL 

Wayne Booth, writes:

The differences with PAL and NTSC have to do with the number of 
lines displayed on the screen and whether they are using 50 or 
60 Hertz.

If I remember correctly, I believe PAL has 625 lines/screen and 
they refresh the screen 50 times a second doing 1/2 the lines 
each refresh so they effectively repaint the screen 25 times a 
second.  NTSC is 525 lines/screen with a 60 times a second 
refresh - again only half the lines each refresh so a 30 times a 
second frame rate.  This would change the amount of time 
available during vertical sync pulse, and the number of lines 
that need to be redrawn each time.


Subject: 13.12) What programming languages are available for the 

Revision : 1.0
Date.... : 4/20/1997

   !!!! This section is under construction - HELP WANTED !!!!
  The goal is to give information about all available languages
  for the Atari 8-bit computer. This information will include;
  title, last version, author, date and a short description.
  It would also be nice to know how to get it and where to get
  more information (like reference cards, reviews and such).

  Some resources:
  - The Multi-lingual Atari, Analog magazine 45, August 1986
  - Assembler Interchange Format, Project description
    Version 2.2, 2-2-1997, Freddy Offenga

  If you like to help or if you've something to add already,
  just contact me. There's still a lot work to be done....
  Freddy Offenga, email-to:
There are quite a lot! To get some structure in this section 
it's divided into the following catagories;
        a) ASSEMBLER
        b) BASIC
        c) C
        d) PASCAL
        e) LISP
        f) FORTH
        g) PILOT
        h) LOGO
        i) All the rest

[D]  = available on disk
[C]  = available on cartridge

    - 130XE+ Makro Assembler v2.2, 1992 (Torsten Karwoth) [D]
      Two pass 6502 assembler/editor. Supports extra RAM.
      Highly compatible with Atmas II.
    - Alfasm, Version 1.0, 1990 (Jeff Williams) [D]
      Supports 65816 instructions (for the Turbo-816 upgrade
      from DataQue Software). This assember is also known as
      the Turbo-Assembler/16.
    - Atari Assembler/Editor, 1981 (Atari) [C]
      Two pass 6502 assembler/editor.
    - Atari Macro Assembler, 1981 (Atari) [D]
      Two pass 6502 assembler/editor.
    - Atmas II Makroassembler, 1985 (Peter Finzel, Hofacker) [D]
      Macro assembler with integrated editor and monitor.
    - Bibo Assembler, 1986 (Compy-shop) [D]
    - Datasm/65 assembler, Version 2.0, 1981 (DataSoft) [D]
      Two-pass 6502 assembler.
    - EASMD, Version 1.0, 1981 (OSS) [D]
    - MAC/65 Macro Assembler, 1982 (OSS) [D/C]
      Two pass macro assembler/editor.
    - MAE, 1996 [D]
      Supports 6502 and 65816 mnemonics.
    - Nasm65 assembler, 1992 (Nat!) [D]
      Highly portable cross assembler (written in C). Initially
      made for the Atari ST. Highly compatible with MAC/65.
    - PC-65 Assembler, Version 1.0 beta, 1996 (Jan Feenstra) [D]
      Two pass 6502 cross assembler for the PC. The source
      format is highly compatible with the ST-65 assembler.
    - Synassembler, 1982 (Steve Hales, Synapse Soft) [D]
      Two pass 6502 assembler.
    - ST-65 Assembler, 1991 (A. Stauffenberg, F.Offenga) [D]
      A cross assembler for the Atari ST (written in 68000 asm).

    - Advan BASIC Compiler (Advan Language Designs)
    - Atari 800 Basic, Version 1.0, 1981 (Microsoft) [D]
    - Atari BASIC, Rev.C, 1983 (Atari) [C]
    - Atari Microsoft BASIC II (Atari) [C]
    - BASIC A+, Version 3.05, 1981 (OSS) [D]
    - BASIC XL (OSS) [C]
    - BASIC XE, 1985 (OSS) [C]
    - Turbo Basic XL (Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer) [D]
      Interpreter, Version 1.5, 1985
      Compiler, Version 1.1, 1985

c) C
    - ACE C (John Palevich & Ralph Walden) [D]
      This is a newer version of 'Deep Blue C'.
    - C/65, Tiny C (OSS)
    - C65
    - CC65, 1989 (John R. Dunning) [D]
      This public domain package includes; compiler, linker,
      assembler and object librarian.
    - CC8
    - Deep Blue C, Version 1.2, 1982 (John Palevich, APX) [D]
      Drawn from Ron Cain's public domain C-compiler.
    - DVC C, Version 1.01, 1985 (Ralph E. Walden) [D]
    - LightSpeed C, Version 1.08, 1986
      (Clearstar Softechnology) [D]

    - Atari Pascal, Version 1.0, 1982 (APX-20102) [D]
    - Draper Pascal, Version 1.5, 1983 (Norm Draper) [D]
    - Kyan Pascal, 1986 (Kyan Software) [D]
      Package includes; compiler, linker and assembler.

    - INTER-LISP/65, Version 2.1, 1981 [D]
      (Special Software Systems, DataSoft)

    - ValForth (Valpar International)
    - Extended fig-Forth (APX-20029)
    - fig-Forth, Version 1.1 [D]
    - fun-Forth (APX-20146)
    - Grafik-FORTH
    - QS Forth (Quality Software)

    - Atari PILOT, 1980 (Atari) [C]

    - Atari LOGO, 1983 (LCSI, Atari) [C]

i) All the rest
    - Action!, 1983 (OSS) [D/C]
    - Quick, Version 2.0, 1990 (Raindorf Soft) [D]


Subject: 14.1) What vendors, developers, or publishers support 
               the 8-bit Atari?

See the "Atari 8-Bit Computers Vendors and Developers List."

Available via these locations and Usenet FAQ archives 

news:comp.sys.atari.8bit   news:comp.answers   news:news.answers

Or you can always ask me for a copy at


Subject: 14.2) Where is my nearest 8-bit Atari BBS?

InfoMan (Trevor Holyoak), maintains a list
called "Atari 8bit Support BBS's."


Subject: 14.3) Where is my nearest 8-bit Atari user group?

Rich Tietjens, maintains an Atari computer 
user group list at:


Subject: 14.4) I'm new to the Atari.  How do I use this thing?

"The Unofficial Atari 8-bit New User, Emulator Help FAQ" is 
maintained by (Bill Kendrick).  Bill 
and his FAQ are excellent sources for information on basic usage 
of the 8-bit Atari, and for information on the 8-bit Atari 
emulators which run on other computing platforms.

If you would like a text-only version you can send e-mail to:

with the following as the subject:

  send emulator faq

Note that the "better" version (which the text version is based 
on) is:


Subject: 14.5) Can I use an emulator to run my old Atari 
               software on my new computer?

"The Unofficial Atari 8-bit New User, Emulator Help FAQ" is 
maintained by (Bill Kendrick).  Bill 
and his FAQ are excellent sources for information on basic usage 
of the 8-bit Atari, and for information on the 8-bit Atari 
emulators which run on other computing platforms.

If you would like a text-only version you can send e-mail to:

with the following as the subject:

  send emulator faq

Note that the "better" version (which the text version is based 
on) is:


Subject: 14.6) What hardware upgrades, modifications and add-ons 
               are available?

The Atari 8-bit Hardware Upgrade, Modification and Add-On FAQ is 
maintained by David A. Paterson, or see:


Subject: 14.7) What is the HARD-Interlacing-Picture (HIP) 

HIP is a new method to displaing pictures on small atari...

HIP stands for HARD-Interlacing-Picture and was found by
Members of HARD Software, Hungary in June, July 1996...

It enables to display 160 x 240 Pixels with 30 shades without
nearly all flickering (depends on the source-picture you use)...
HARD stands not for HARD or HEAVY Interlacing, just for the

For more information, see the HIP-FAQ, located at:

or contact HeAvEn at


Subject: 14.8) How do I access Usenet, FTP, Gopher, and WWW by 

The Accessing the Internet by E-Mail FAQ is maintained by 
"Doctor Bob" Rankin, or see:

End of atari-8-bit/faq
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